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爱尔兰诗歌日|让我们读一读爱尔兰诗人的诗吧

2017-04-28 互联网

Today the 27th of April is Irish Poetry Day. 

To celebrate, here is an introductory guide to Irish poetry.

4月27日是爱尔兰诗歌日,让我们为你介绍一下爱尔兰诗歌。

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Introduction to Irish Poetry/爱尔兰诗歌简介

Irish poetry is rich and complex and this shows in its history.  Irish poetry is the oldest vernacular form of poetry in Europe; this means that it was not written in the Latin language but in Irish. Being an island, Ireland was relatively protected from foreign invasions which preserved its insular language and culture.

爱尔兰诗歌丰富且复杂,这在其历史中一直有所体现。作为欧洲最早的通俗诗,爱尔兰诗歌不是用拉丁文写的,而是爱尔兰语。毕竟爱尔兰是一个岛屿国家,相对免受外来入侵,岛国语言与文化得以较好的保存。


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The first Irish poems were short in length to make sure they would be easily passed on to further generations, and their rhythm was complex enough to make it difficult for people to change the original lyrics. These poems were shared orally and had many uses. Some poems would talk about the Kings’ life and glory. However as recited and shared orally among the people, they were mainly composed for entertainment.

为了能顺利流传下去,最早的爱尔兰诗都短小精悍,节奏也相当复杂,这样别人就不能轻易修改原来的诗句。那些诗歌都是口头流传下来的,并且有诸多用处。有些诗人会用诗歌描述国王的生活与辉煌。尽管民间很多人都朗诵诗歌相互分享,但大部分诗歌在创作的时候主要还是仅供娱乐。


We can trace the first poems written in the Irish language to the 6th century while the first Irish poems written in the English language appeared during the 14th century. There has naturally been intertwinement between the English and Irish traditions. In the 18th century, Irish and English language reached an equal level of importance and the Irish culture and the English language merged. However during the 19th century, economic and political factors placed the English language as predominant over the Irish one, and this phenomenon can be felt in the style of the contemporaneous poetry.

最早的爱尔兰语诗诞生在6世纪,而爱尔兰的英文诗则最早出现在14世纪。历史上爱尔兰文化和英格兰文化彼此纠缠过一点时间。到了18世纪,英语和爱尔兰语达到了同等地位,爱尔兰文化里完全融入了英语。然而在19世纪,由于经济政治的因素英语超越爱尔兰语成为了爱尔兰的主要语言。我们只要看一下同时期的诗歌就能感受到这些语言文化的变迁。


So what languages do Irish poets write in?/那么爱尔兰诗人到底用什么语言写诗?

Both English and Irish.  There’s a wonderful poet named Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill who has written about how she feels inspired by the rhythm and meter of Irish in a way she can’t replicate in English. Another favourite is Cathal Ó Searcaigh, whose ‘Níl aon ní’ [‘There’s nothing’] has some stunning imagery of the Irish landscape. We also have some masterful translators, such as Thomas Kinsella who translated the Irish epic poem, ‘The Táin’, which is about an ancient war between the provinces of Connacht and Ulster.

答案是英语和爱尔兰语都用。爱尔兰有位非常厉害的诗人叫诺拉•尼歌诺(Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill),她就曾说过爱尔兰语的节奏与韵律给她带来的灵感是英语所无法企及的。另一位著名诗人凱索•欧•希尔凯(Cathal Ó Searcaigh)笔下的爱尔兰语诗Níl aon ní(即There’s nothing,中文意为什么都没有)生动展示了爱尔兰景观的壮丽。爱尔兰还有一些诗人本身还是翻译大师,他们把最经典的爱尔兰语诗歌翻译成英文。比如托马斯•金赛拉(Thomas Kinsella)就翻译了经典诗The Táin,这首诗讲述的是古时候康诺特省和阿尔斯特省之间爆发的一场战争。


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4 Popular Irish Poets to Know/4 位必知的爱尔兰诗人

William Butler Yeats, (1865 –1939)

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William Butler Yeats  is one of the most well-known Irish poets. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in Literature in December 1923. In China his poem “When you are old” became a popular song when sang in 2014 on a famous singing TV show. 

威廉•巴特勒•叶芝是爱尔兰最负盛名的诗人之一,也是1923年诺贝尔文学奖的获得者。2014年,由歌手赵照根据叶芝的诗歌《When You are Old》红遍中国。

Another well-known poem of his is ''The Lake Isle of Innisfree'' :

他的另一首名作《茵尼斯弗利岛》:

The Lake Isle of Innisfree

《茵尼斯弗利岛》

I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,

And a small cabin build there, 

of clay and wattles made:

Nine bean-rows will I have there, 

a hive for the honey-bee;

And live alone in the bee-loud glade.

我就要起身走了,到茵尼斯弗利岛,

造座小茅屋在那里,枝条编墙糊上泥;

我要养上一箱蜜蜂,种上九行豆角,

独住在蜂声嗡嗡的林间草地。


And I shall have some peace there, 

for peace comes dropping slow,

Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;

There midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow,

And evening full of the linnet’s wings. 

那儿安宁会降临我,安宁慢慢儿滴下来,

从晨的面纱滴落到蛐蛐歇唱的地方;

那儿半夜闪着微光,中午染着紫红光彩,

而黄昏织满了红雀的翅膀。


I will arise and go now, for always night and day

I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;

While I stand on the roadway, 

or on the pavements grey,

I hear it in the deep heart’s core.

我就要起身走了,因为从早到晚从夜到朝

我听到湖水在不断地轻轻拍岸;

不论我站在马路上还是在灰色人行道,

总听得它在我心灵深处呼唤。


Patrick Kavanagh, (1904 –1967) 

Patrick Kavanagh (1904 –1967) was an Irish poet and novelist. A few of his best known poems are "The Great Hunger", "On Raglan Road" and “Memory of my father”. He is recognizable for mostly writing about mundane and ordinary life issues.   

帕特里克.卡瓦纳(1904 –1967) 是 爱尔兰著名的诗人和小说家。他的代表作包括《大饥荒》、《在拉格伦路》和《纪念我的父亲》。他的作品充满乡土气息,以描绘平凡的生活为主。


Memory of My Father

纪念我的父亲

Every old man I see

Reminds me of my father

When he had fallen in love with death

One time when sheaves were gathered.

我见到的每个上了年纪的人

都让我想起我的父亲

死亡向他抛出绣球

那时所有的花束都聚拢

 

That man I saw in Gardiner Street

Stumble on the kerb was one,

He stared at me half-eyed,

I might have been his son.

我在嘉丁纳看到一个人

就是那个被石头绊倒的那个

他眼睛半歙盯着我

也许我就是他的儿子

 

And I remember the musician

Faltering over his fiddle

In Bayswater, London.

He too set me the riddle.

我还记得那个音乐家

蹒跚的拉着小提琴

在伦敦,贝斯沃特

他也给我出了同样的谜题

 

Every old man I see

In October-coloured weather

Seems to say to me

"I was once your father."

在十月的绚烂的天气里

我看到的每个年老的人

似乎好像对我说

“曾经我是你的父亲。”


Seamus Justin Heaney, (1939 –2013)

Seamus Justin Heaney  was an Irish poet, playwright, translator and lecturer at Harvard. In 1995 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Critics say he is one of the most important Irish poets since Yeats. Academic John Sutherland described him as"the greatest poet of our age". In 2013, he was described by the journal The Independent as "probably the best-known poet in the world.” He is famous for his work the Death of a Naturalist (1966).

谢默斯•希尼是一名爱尔兰诗人、剧作家和翻译家,生前曾在哈佛大学授课。他在1995年荣获诺贝尔文学奖。评论家称他是继叶芝后最重要的爱尔兰诗人。学者约翰•萨瑟兰认为他是‘我们这一代最伟大的诗人’。2013年,在爱尔兰《独立报》中他被评为‘可能是全世界最有名的诗人’。他最著名的作品是《一个自然主义者的死亡》(1966).


Eavan Boland, ( 1944- today)

Eavan Boland is an Irish poet and author born in Dublin. Daughter of a diplomat and painter, she studied in Trinity College where she wrote as a student her first collection of poems. She is now a professor at Stanford. Boland mostly writes about Irish identity and the place of women in Irish history, challenging the traditional representation of womanhood. A great number of her poems are studied by Irish students taking the Leaving Certificate examination (the equivalent of the Gaokao in China). 

伊文•博兰  ( 1944- )是一名出生在都柏林的诗人和作家。她是一位外交官和画家的女儿,曾就读于都柏林圣三一大学,在校期间出版了她的第一本诗集。现在她是斯坦福大学的一名教授。博兰的作品以描述爱尔兰民族身份和爱尔兰女性在历史中的地位见长,对女性的传统象征进行挑战。她的诗歌中有很大一部分被纳入爱尔兰毕业考试(等同于中国高考)的学习大纲中。

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