READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1–13, which are based on Reading
Passage 1 below.
MAKING TIME FOR SCIENCE
Chronobiology might sound a little futuristic – like something from a science fiction novel, perhaps – but it’s actually a field of study that concerns one of the oldest processes life on this planet has ever known: short-term rhythms of time and their effect on flora and fauna.
This can take many forms. Marine life, for example, is influenced by tidal patterns. Animals tend to be active or inactive depending on the position of the sun or moon. Numerous creatures, humans included, are largely diurnal – that is, they like to come out during the hours of sunlight. Nocturnal animals, such as bats and possums, prefer to forage by night. A third group are known as crepuscular: they thrive in the low-light of dawn and dusk and remain inactive at other hours.
When it comes to humans, chronobiologists are interested in what is known as the circadian rhythm. This is the complete cycle our bodies are naturally geared to undergo within the passage of a twenty-four hour day. Aside from sleeping at night and waking during the day, each cycle involves many other factors such as changes in blood pressure and body temperature. Not everyone has an identical circadian rhythm. ‘Night people’, for example, often describe how they find it very hard to operate during the morning, but become alert and focused by evening. This is a benign variation within circadian rhythms known as a chronotype.
Scientists have limited abilities to create durable modifications of chronobiological demands. Recent therapeutic developments for humans such as artificial light machines and melatonin administration can reset our circadian rhythms, for example, but our bodies can tell the difference and health suffers when we breach these natural rhythms for extended periods of time. Plants appear no more malleable in this respect; studies demonstrate that vegetables grown in season and ripened on the tree are far higher in essential nutrients than those grown in greenhouses and ripened by laser.
Knowledge of chronobiological patterns can have many pragmatic implications for our day-to-day lives. While contemporary living can sometimes appear to subjugate biology – after all, who needs circadian rhythms when we have caffeine pills, energy drinks, shift work and cities that never sleep? – keeping in synch with our body clock is important.
The average urban resident, for example, rouses at the eye-blearing time of 6.04 a.m., which researchers believe to be far too early. One study found that even rising at 7.00 a.m. has deleterious effects on health unless exercise is performed for 30 minutes afterward. The optimum moment has been whittled down to 7.22 a.m.; muscle aches, headaches and moodiness were reported to be lowest by participants in the study who awoke then.
Once you’re up and ready to go, what then? If you’re trying to shed some extra pounds, dieticians are adamant: never skip breakfast. This disorients your circadian rhythm and puts your body in starvation mode. The recommended course of action is to follow an intense workout with a carbohydrate-rich breakfast; the other way round and weight loss results are not as pronounced.
Morning is also great for breaking out the vitamins. Supplement absorption by the body is not temporal-dependent, but naturopath Pam Stone notes that the extra boost at breakfast helps us get energised for the day ahead. For improved absorption, Stone suggests pairing supplements with a food in which they are soluble and steering clear of caffeinated beverages. Finally, Stone warns to take care with storage; high potency is best for absorption, and warmth and humidity are known to deplete the potency of a supplement.
After-dinner espressos are becoming more of a tradition – we have the Italians to thank for that – but to prepare for a good night’s sleep we are better off putting the brakes on caffeine consumption as early as 3 p.m. With a seven hour half-life, a cup of coffee containing 90 mg of caffeine taken at this hour could still leave 45 mg of caffeine in your nervous system at ten o’clock that evening. It is essential that, by the time you are ready to sleep, your body is rid of all traces.
Evenings are important for winding down before sleep; however, dietician Geraldine Georgeou warns that an after-five carbohydrate-fast is more cultural myth than chronobiological demand. This will deprive your body of vital energy needs. Overloading your gut could lead to indigestion, though. Our digestive tracts do not shut down for the night entirely, but their work slows to a crawl as our bodies prepare for sleep. Consuming a modest snack should be entirely sufficient.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1–7 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1 Chronobiology is the study of how living things have evolved over time.
2 The rise and fall of sea levels affects how sea creatures behave.
3 Most animals are active during the daytime.
4 Circadian rhythms identify how we do different things on different days.
5 A ‘night person’ can still have a healthy circadian rhythm.
6 New therapies can permanently change circadian rhythms without causing harm.
7 Naturally-produced vegetables have more nutritional value.
1. FALSE：答案见原文第1段：but it’s actually a field of study that concerns one of the oldest processes life on this planet has ever known: short-term rhythms of time and their effect on flora and fauna. 而题目中是说Chronobiology是研究生物如何进化的，与原文表述不符。
2. TRUE：见原文第2段Marine life, for example, is influenced by tidal patterns.这句话是说海洋生活受潮涨潮落影响。题目中的The rise and fall of sea levels= tidal patterns，sea creatures海洋生物包含在Marine life中，而且下文也提到Animals怎样受到了影响。
3. NOT GIVEN：题目是说多数动物在白天活跃，而原文中低2段是说有的动物白天活动，有的动物夜间活动，并没有说多数动物都是白天活动。
4. FALSE：见原文第3段This is the complete cycle our bodies are naturally geared to undergo within the passage of a twenty-four hour day.原文是说Circadian rhythms（生理规律）是人们身体在一天24小时内的自然运行规律，并不能识别人们在不同的日期如何做不同的事情。
5. TRUE：见原文第3段最后1句话This is a benign variation within circadian rhythms known as a chronotype.是说‘night person’是人体生理规律一种良性变异，所以是healthy的。
6. FALSE：见原文第4段Recent therapeutic developments for humans such as artificial light machines and melatonin administration can reset our circadian rhythms, for example, but our bodies can tell the difference and health suffers when we breach these natural rhythms for extended periods of time.原文是说therapeutic developments可改变circadian rhythms，但是如果长期破坏自然规律，我们的身体会发生差异并遭遇健康问题。而题目是说新的治疗方法可以持久改变生理规律而不会造成伤害，所以是错误的。
7. TRUE：见原文第4段最后一句话studies demonstrate that vegetables grown in season and ripened on the tree are far higher in essential nutrients than those grown in greenhouses and ripened by laser.是说研究表明，按季节生长并自然成熟的蔬菜的基本的营养要高于在温室中生产并催熟的蔬菜，所以，题目中说自然生长的蔬菜具有更高的营养价值是正确的。