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雅思阅读之剑桥雅思长难句分析

2018-07-12 留学监理网

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各位考鸭,你们是不是经常在雅思阅读中被一些长难句搞得不知所措,其实弄清楚句子成分,学会提取句子主干,理解这些长难句就轻而易举了。不信的话,一起来试试吧!

 

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1.The scent she carried in her samples and on her body was a message to the other bees that this was the one they were looking for.(剑4, General Training Test B section 3)


分析:本句的主句为“The scent was a message to the other bees”;“she carried in her samples and on her body”为定语从句,做The scent的定语,关系词在定语从句中做宾语,因此被省掉;“that this was the one they were looking for”为that引导的同位语从句,做a message的同位语;“they were looking for”为定语从句,做the one的定语,关系词在定语从句中做for的宾语,因此被省掉。


2.The teacher-subject was told that whenever the pupil gave the wrong answer to a question, a shock was to be administered, beginning at the lowest level and increasing in severity with each successive wrong answer.(剑5, Test 1 passage 2)


分析:本句的主句为“The teacher-subject was told that…”;“that whenever the pupil gave the wrong answer to a question, a shock was to be administered, beginning at the lowest level and increasing in severity with each successive wrong answer”为that引导的宾语从句,做tell的宾语;在该宾语从句中“a shock was to be administered”为主句,而“whenever the pupil gave the wrong answer to a question”为whenever引导的时间装语从句,在该宾语从句中做时间状语,“beginning at the lowest level and increasing in severity with each successive wrong answer”为现在分词短语做状语,在该宾语从句中做伴随状语。


3.As audiences grew, so did the places where films were shown, finishing up with the ‘great picture palaces’ of the 1920s, which rivaled, and occasionally superseded, theatres and opera-houses in terms of opulence and splendour.(剑4, General Training Test A section 3)


分析:本句的主句为倒装句“so did the places”;“As audiences grew”为as引导的时间状语从句;“where films were shown”为定语从句,做places的定语,关系词为where;“finishing up with the ‘great picture palaces’ of the 1920s”为现在分词短语做伴随状语;“which rivaled, and occasionally superseded, theatres and opera-houses in terms of opulence and splendour.”为非限制性定语从句,关系词为which。


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4.The problem of how health-care resources should be allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in the most just and efficient way, is not a new one.(剑4, test4 passage 3)


分析:本句的主句为“The problem is not a new one”;“how health-care resources should be allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in the most just and efficient way”为how引导的宾语从句,做of的宾语;“so that they are distributed in the most just and efficient way”为so that引导的目的状语从句。

 

5.These methods include strength training that duplicates what they are doing in their running events as well as plyometrics, a technique pioneered in the former Soviet Union. (剑4, test4 passage 1)


分析:本句的主句为“These methods include strength training”;“that duplicates what they are doing in their running events as well as plyometrics”为定语从句,做“strength training”的定语,关系词为that;“what they are doing in their running events as well as plyometrics”为宾语从句,由what引导;“a technique pioneered in the former Soviet Union”为plyometrics的同位语。


6.The dominant idea, raised by 64% of the pupils, was that rainforests provide animals with habitats. (test1 passage 1)


分析:“raised by 64% of the pupils”为过去分词短语作定语,“that rainforests provide animals with habitats”为表语从句,作was的表语,本句的主句为“The dominant idea…was that…”。


7.A popular explanation of play has been that it helps juveniles develop the skills they will need to hunt. (test2 passage 3)


分析:本句的主句为“A popular explanation of play has been that…”;“that it helps juveniles develop the skills they will need to hunt”为that引导的表语从句,作has been的表语;“they will need to hunt”为定语从句,关系词在定语从句中作宾语,被省略。


8.A modern hard-core sociobiologist might even go so far as to claim that this aggressive instinct evolved as an advantageous trait, having been of survival value to our ancestors in their struggle against the hardships of life on the plains and in the carves, ultimately finding its way into our genetic make-up as a remnant of our ancient animal ways.(剑5, Test 1 passage 2)


分析:本句的主句为“A modern hard-core sociobiologist might even go so far as to claim that …”;其中“that this aggressive instinct evolved as an advantageous trait, having been of survival value to our ancestors in their struggle against the hardships of life on the plains and in the carves, ultimately finding its way into our genetic make-up as a remnant of our ancient animal ways.”为that引导的宾语从句,做claim的宾语;在宾语从句中“having been of survival value to our ancestors in their struggle against the hardships of life on the plains and in the carves”为现在分词短语作状语,在该宾语从句中做原因状语,“ultimately finding its way into our genetic make-up as a remnant of our ancient animal ways.”也是现在分词短语做状语,在该宾语从句中做时间状语。


9.The best estimates are that the temperatures will rise by 2-3℃ in this century, causing considerable problems, at a total cost of US $5,000 billion.(剑5, Test 1 passage 3)


分析:本句主句为“The best estimates are that…”;“that the temperatures will rise by 2-3℃ in this century, causing considerable problems, at a total cost of US $5,000 billion.”为that引导的表语从句,做are的表语,“causing considerable problems”为现在分词短语做伴随状语。


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