The principal difference between urban growth in Europe and in the North American colonies was the slow evolution of cities in the former and their rapid growth in the latter. In Europe they grew over a period of centuries from town economies to their present urban structure. In North America, they started as wilderness communities and developed to mature urbanism in little more than a century.
In the early colonial days in North America, small cities sprang up along theAtlantic Coastline, mostly in what are now New England and Middle Atlantic states in the United States and in the lower Saint Lawrence valley in Canada. This was natural because these areas were nearest to England and France, particularly England, from which most capital goods (assets such as equipment) and many consumer goods were imported. Merchandising establishments were,accordingly, advantageously located in port cities from which goods could be readily distributed to interior settlements. Here, too, were the favored locations for processing raw materials prior to export. Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Montreal, and other cities flourished, and, as the colonies grew, these cities increased in importance.
This was less true in the colonial South, where life centered around large farms, known as plantations, rather than around towns, as was the case in the areas further north along the Atlantic coastline. The local isolation and the economic self-sufficiency of the plantations were antagonistic to the development of the towns. The plantations maintained their independence because they were located on navigable streams and each had a wharf accessible to the small shipping of that day. In fact, one of the strongest factors in the selection of plantation land was the desire to have its front on a water highway."
When the United States became an independent nation in 1776, it did not have a single city as large as 50,000 inhabitants, but by 1820 it had a city of more than 10,000 people, and by 1880 it had recorded a city of over one million. It was not until after 1823, after the mechanization of the spinning had weaving industries, that cities started drawing young people away from farms. Such migration was particularly rapid following the Civil War (1861-1865).
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
2. The word "they" in line 4 refers to
3. The passage compares early European and North American cities on the basis of which of the
4. The word "accordingly" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
5. According to the passage , early colonial cities were established along the Atlantic coastline of North America due to
6. The passage indicates that during colonial times, the Atlantic coastline cities prepared which of
7. According to the passage , all of the following aspects of the plantation system influenced the growth of southern cities EXCEPT the
8. It can be inferred from the passage that, in comparison with northern cities, most southern cities were
9. The word "recorded" in line 26 is closest in meaning to
10. The word "drawing" in line 28 is closest in meaning to
11. The passage mentions the period following the Civil War (line 29) because it was a time of
1.about the deer's antlers.文章关于鹿角的功能作用给了几种hypothesis.有图片： 一只鹿.前蹄处有英文申词。
文审笫一段开头就有2题!有题1，问句子highlighted sentence的大致意思。一般鹿只有公鹿有antler except in某某 <鹿的名字)，小管female和male都有 antler。有题2:词汇题问abnormal,答案是unusual接下来一个hypothesis说，antleir在春夏会生长，秋冬停止生长，有题(好似是问antler里面的blood vessel的作用?〉答案记得比较淸楚，我选的是用来散热-笫二个hypothesis 说antler是否是吸引异性的，说female挑选male不是看中antler的大小，有题，而是看中deer的body size还有一个是什么忘记子.等别人来补允。第三个 hypothesis讨论当deer碰到domain problem[领土之争的时候)，antler是杏是 用来fighting的。有资料显示1/5的deer因为male-male combat就dead了，然后说，其交antler小是用来combat的。为combat时.small size的鹿会用他们的一种某某 teeth defend: large size 的鹿会用前蹄against predators。有题(好 像是问鹿怎么against predator的，答案就是小的用teeth，大的用前蹄〉
2. about Nitrogen
说始新世还是远占的时候，空气里有大量的Nitrogen.可是这个氮气几乎不可以为plant and animal提供什么物质，因为Nitrogen特别慢才能分解还是什 么的。森林大火反而会加速nitrogen的分解.因为他们稍微了深林(相当于制造了fossil fuel 然后有题.提到some of micro-organism can break down the bond, then build a nitrogen-conponent,然后提取 nutrition.有题I 我选的是：nitrogen back and forth from atmosphere to bacteria.
然后谈到今年农业crop需要用nitrogen,以前都是发达国家占全球90%的氮气使用份额。但是近来发展中国家却提高了 40%还是什么的.有题(这题很容易错 的!我记得我选完以后检查发现是错的.因为问题出的有点绕，而且那个百分之 几的句子很容易理解销!)然后提到了 acid rain,先说acid rain对aquatic生物 的影响，acid rain使得algae过度生长，当algae死去后浮在水面上，阻碍了sunlight进入水里，于是就阻碍了生物的metabolism,导致海生物死亡。冉说 acid rain对陆生生物的影响.使soil里面的metal含量变高.造成环境污染。这里关于acid rain的有题，题目是判断如下选项哪个是对acid rain的影响的正确描述，
先讲英国的watch，有题，问为什么在18世纪，英国在手表方面领先?然后讲的是瑞士，因为瑞士虽然manufacturing发展的不错，但是国内市场太小了，所 以很重视export。这个时候的英国的old craftmen习惯用手工弄，不愿意改用某个东西弄，所以产量少.而且英国国内市场比较大，内销就行了.这有题，问为什么瑞士在某个世纪手表方面比英国更出名?然后是美国，美国的watch根据本国情况(没有太多会技术的craftmen)所以**了很多精密的仪器，所以这时候不太会用技术的工人也能上手。提到了一个更精密的需要用手工的东西(貌似是珠宝类的)有题..
遇到了阅读加试(telegraph & birdsong)
ultimately (答案是选 t eventually) , thus(答案是选 unusual), abnormal(答案是选unusual)hairline (选的是 slight..) unprecedented，catual