By the mid-nineteenth century, the term icebox had entered the American language, but ice was still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States. The ice trade grew with the growth of cities. Ice was used in hotels, taverns, and hospitals, and by some forward-looking city dealers in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. After the Civil War (1861-1865), as ice was used to refrigerate freight cars, it also came into household use. Even before 1880, half the ice sold in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and one-third of that sold in Boston and Chicago, went to families for their own use. This had become possible because a new house hold convenience, the icebox, a precursor of the modern refrigerator, had been invented.
Making an efficient icebox was not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth century, the knowledge of the physics of heat, which was essential to a science of refrigeration, was rudimentary. The commonsense notion that the best icebox was one that prevented the ice from melting was of course mistaken, for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling. Nevertheless, early efforts to economize ice included wrapping the ice in blankets, which kept the ice from doing its job. Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors achieve the delicate balance of insulation and circulation needed for an efficient icebox.
But as early as 1803, an ingenious Maryland farmer, Thomas Moore, had been on the righ ttrack. He owned a farm about twenty miles outside the city of Washington, for which the village of Georgetown was the market center. When he used an icebox of his own design to transport his butter to market, he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting stuff in the tubs of his competitors to pay a premium price for his butter, still fresh and hard in neat, one-pound bricks. One advantage of his icebox, Moore explained, was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The influence of ice on the diet
(B) The development of refrigeration
(C) The transportation of goods to market
(D) Sources of ice in the nineteenth century
2. According to the passage, when did the word icebox become part of the language of the
(A) in 1803
(B) sometime before 1850
(C) during the civil war
(D) near the end of the nineteenth century
3. The phrase forward-looking in line 4 is closest in meaning to
4. The author mentions fish in line 4 because
(A) many fish dealers also sold ice
(B) fish was shipped in refrigerated freight cars
(C) fish dealers were among the early commercial users of ice
(D) fish was not part of the ordinary person's diet before the invention of the icebox
讲什么美国公园的，商人看到有利润，就搞什么旅社什么的，做广吿吸引游人来参观，从而 获利，然启发展发展什么的，黄石公园,悠闲美地，就是这样发展起来的，然后越来越多的 人想旅游什么的，就要求高速公路的发展，然后政府就发展他，然后玫府也成立什么浮云般 的部门，去监控这些公园神马的(有题，然后这些公园的发展就更趋向于保护环境什么的， 里面提到大神对美国东部的人对保护环明的意识的提高，有突出贡献,(有转述题和原因题. 两个啊，同字们注意)