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扫清托福阅读障碍:托福阅读长难句解析

2018-06-06 留学监理网

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各位考生,你们有木有遇到这样的情况?一个句子中每个单词都认识,但是却看不懂这句话究竟是什么意思。这种情况是不是很纠结?托福考试阅读中会出现一些结构特别复杂的句子,我们把它们叫做长难句。词汇只是句子的基础,要明白一句话的意思,必须能搞懂这些长难句的句子结构。一起来看看下面这10句长难句解析,相信会帮你扫清托福阅读障碍,助你一臂之力哦!


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大家可以先试着自己理解一下,然后再看解析哟!


1、In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet itspurpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since people first discovered them——even while building materials have changed dramatically.


(In order for the structure) (to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose), architecture employs methods of support that, (because they are based on physical laws), have changed little since people first discovered them—— (even while building materials have changed dramatically. )


分析:一个句子重点在于主干,看懂了主干,就看懂了句子的主要成分。以下主干为句子中红色部分,括号里均是修饰成分。


修饰一:(In order for the structure),介词短语。


修饰二:(to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose),非谓语做形容词性修饰structure。


修饰三:(because they are based on physical laws),插入语,插入语记得先跳过去,断句别出问题,that和have changed是在一起的。


修饰四:(that have changed little sincepeople first discovered them.从句修饰support。


修饰五:(even while building materials have changed dramatically. ),从句。


括号外面的是主干:architectureemploys methods of support,注意support这里是名词。


已经拆成这么短了,你再试试看,应该能看懂了吧?其实在理解句子的时候比较容易犯错在于断句和语序,语序和中文有差异。


参考翻译:为了使结构达到必要的大小和强度去满足它的目的,建筑学上使用了一些支撑的方法,因为这些方法都是基于物理定律,所以尽管建筑材料已经发生了巨大变化,这些方法却自人们发现它们以来就没有什么变化。

 

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2、Fuller devised a type of dance that focused on the shifting play of lights and colors on the voluminous skirts or draperies she wore, which she kept in constant motion principally through movements of her arms, sometimes extended with wands concealed under her costumes.


voluminous/və'lʊmənəs/adj.(指衣物)用料多的, 宽松的, 肥大的;

drapery/'drepəri/n.布料

wand/wɑnd/ n. 棍; 棒; 杖; (尤指小仙子或魔术师用的)魔杖

costume/'kɑstum/ n. 服装, 服装式样


Fuller devised a type of dance (that focused on the shifting play of lights and colors on the voluminous skirts or draperies she wore), (which she kept in constant motion principally through movements of her arms), (sometimes extended with wands concealed under her costumes).


分析:


修饰一:(that focused on the shifting play of lights and colors on the voluminous skirts or draperies she wore),从句,修饰dance,大家注意skirts or draperies (she wore)这里还有一个从句哦。

中文:专注于灯光的变换和她所穿宽松的裙子或布料颜色


修饰二:(which she kept in constant motion principally through movements of her arms),从句,修饰前面skirts or draperies,其实是keep skirts or draperies inconstant motion…

中文:她主要通过手臂的移动使裙子或布料保持连续的移动


修饰三:(sometimes extended with wands concealed under her costumes),非谓语动词,修饰arms。主要这里with wands (concealed under her costumes)中concealed under her costumes修饰wands

中文:有时候手臂由于隐藏在衣服下面的手杖而变长


主干:括号外面的,Fullerdevised a type of dance


参考翻译:Fuller设计了一种(专注于灯光的变换和她所穿宽松的裙子或布料颜色)的舞蹈,在舞蹈中,她主要通过手臂的移动使裙子或布料保持连续的移动,有时候手臂由于隐藏在衣服下面的手杖而变长。


这个句子的主要修饰成分就是从句和非谓语动词,大家务必想清楚,每一个修饰成分修饰的是什么,才能看清楚这个句子的结构。


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3、Her dancing also attracted the attention of French poets and painters of the period, for it appealed to their liking for mystery, their belief in art for art’s sake, a nineteenth-century idea that art is valuable in itself rather than because it may have some moral or educational benefit, and their efforts to synthesize form and content.


appeal v.恳求,呼吁;(对某人)有吸引力~to sb; (使某人)感兴趣;上诉

for one’s sake为了…的缘故

synthesize/ˈsɪnθɪˌsaɪz/v. 合成,综合


这里是分界线,先自己分析哦。


Her dancing also attracted the attention (of French poets and painters) (of the period), (for it appealed to their liking for mystery, their belief in art for art’s sake, (a nineteenth-century idea that art is valuable in itself rather than because it may have some moral or educational benefit),and their efforts to synthesize form and content.)


分析:

修饰一:(of French poets and painters),介词短语,修饰the attention。大家注意英文喜欢把修饰成分放在后面,这个很重要。

中文:法国诗人和花季。


修饰二:(of the period) ,介词短语,修饰French poets and painters,也是放在后面哦。


修饰三:(a nineteenth-century idea that art is valuable in itself rather than because it may have some moral or educational benefit),同位语,用来解释说明前面的belief,这个同位语语放在这里分割了原句,大家断句的时候要注意。

中文:一个19世纪的思想:艺术本身比它所带来的道德或教育利益更有价值。


修饰四:(for it appealed to their liking for mystery, their belief in art for art’s sake , and their efforts to synthesize formand content.),从句,表示原因,大家注意我把同位语去掉了(因为不重要),这样更能看清重要内容。这里有一个并列结构,是一个A, B, and C结构,不知道大家在看的时候有没有看出来,A= their liking for mystery,B= their belief in art for art’ssake,C= their efforts to synthesize form and content,插入语解释B。

中文:因为它吸引了他们对于神秘的喜好、他们为艺术而艺术的信仰以及他们把形式和内容融合到一起所作的努力


主干:括号外面的,Her dancing also attracted the attention


参考翻译:

她的舞蹈还吸引了当时法国一些诗人和画家的注意,因为它吸引了他们对于神秘的喜好、他们为艺术而艺术的信仰(这是一个19世纪的思想:艺术本身比它所带来的道德或教育利益更有价值)以及他们把形式和内容融合到一起所作的努力。


这个句子的主要修饰成分就是从句和同位语,大家务必想清楚,每一个修饰成分修饰的是什么,才能看清楚这个句子的结构。


4、The ice shelf cores, with a total length of 215 meters (705 feet), were long enough to penetrate through glacial ice—which is formed from the compaction of snow and contains air bubbles—and to continue into the clear, bubble-free ice formed from seawater that freezes onto the bottom of the glacial ice.


penetrate /'penɪtreɪt/ v. 进入或穿过某物;充满,遍布

compact /kəm'pækt/ v. 将(某物)紧压在一起


我是分界线,先自己分析哦。


The ice shelf cores, (with a total length of 215 meters(705 feet)),were long enough (to penetrate through glacial ice)—(which is formed from the compaction of snow and contains air bubbles)—and (to continue into the clear, bubble-free ice) (formed from seawater)(tha tfreezes onto the bottom of the glacial ice. )


分析:


大家可以发现,把句子拆短了之后,就容易理解多了。请大家仔细看分析。


修饰一: (with a total length of 215 meters(705 feet)),介词短语,修饰the iceshelf cores,修饰成分一般放后面哦

中文:总长为215米(705英尺)


修饰二:(to penetrate through glacial ice),非谓语动词

中文:穿透冰川冰


修饰三:(which is formed from the compaction of snow and contains air bubbles),从句,修饰glacial ice,修饰成分一般放后面哦

中文:由压缩的雪形成的并包含气泡


修饰四:(to continue into the clear,bubble-free ice),非谓语动词

中文:继续进入清澈的、没有气泡的冰


修饰五:(formed from seawater) ,非谓语动词,修饰the clear, bubble-free ice

中文:由海水形成


修饰六:(that freezes onto the bottom ofthe glacial ice.) ,从句,修饰seawater

中文:凝固在冰川冰底部


主干:括号外面的,The iceshelf cores were long enough,主和谓语中间被解词短语with a total length of 215 meters (705 feet)隔开了,大家要注意。


参考翻译:

总长为215米(705英尺)的冰架核已足以穿透(由压缩的雪形成的并包含气泡)的冰川冰,随后穿透清澈的、没有气泡的冰,这些冰是由凝固在冰川冰底部的海水形成的。

这个句子的主要修饰成分就是介词短语、非谓语动词、从句。


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5、Contrary to the arguments of some that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift, it seems reasonable that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals.


maroon /mə'ruːn/ v. 放逐到无人岛上,使孤立

adrift /ə'drɪft/ adj. 漂流的,漂泊的

feat /fiːt/ n. 功绩,伟业

deliberate /dɪ'lɪbərət/ adj. 故意的,刻意的

set out 从某地出发

stock v. 贮备,贮存

domesticate /də'mɛstɪket/ v. 驯养(动物等)


我是分界线,先自己分析哦。


Contrary to the arguments of some (that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift), it seems reasonable (that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions (that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals. ) )


分析:


修饰一:(that much of thepacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift),从句,修饰arguments

中文:波利尼西亚人是在偶尔迷失和漂流被困住而定居在大部分太平洋地区


修饰二:在上一个从句里还有一个省略的从句(after being lost and adrift) =(after Polynesians were lost and adrift)


修饰三:(that set outfully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals. ),从句,修饰expeditions,注意这里(fully stocked with food and domesticated plants andanimals. ),非谓语动词修饰set out

中文:出发时充分贮存了食物和被驯化动植物


主干:大家注意,(that this feat wasaccomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out fully stockedwith food and domesticated plants and animals.), it seems reasonable中的 it指代这个从句,真正的主语是这个从句


参考翻译:

和某些人的观点相反,这些观点认为波利尼西亚人是在偶尔迷失和漂流被困住而定居在大部分太平洋地区,另外一种观点似乎更加合理,认为这些功绩是通过故意的并且出发时充分贮存了食物和被驯化动植物的殖民探险来实现的。


这个句子的主要修饰成分就是非谓语动词和从句。


怎们样,看了上面的分析,是不是有点豁然开朗的感觉呐!?看明白之后,别只看一遍,看几十遍!!没事就拿出来欣赏欣赏,直到你想吐为止。


读书百遍,其义自现。每个人英语水平不一样,你觉得这个句子有点难,你就记录下来,然后反复阅读,当你平时看得都是这样长句子的时候,再回去看TPO中正常的句子,你就会发现怎么一个句子两行就结束了,因为你平时看得都是五六行的句子,豁然开朗。


茶余饭后、饭前便后、鞍前马后多看几遍,因为句子结构复杂是有规律的,常见的修饰成分就那些,看多了就会越来越快。


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